A macro can produce different outputs against different input patterns:

/// The `sum` macro may be invoked in two ways:
/// 
///     sum!(iterator)
///     sum!(1234, iterator)
///
macro_rules! sum {
    ($iter:expr) => {    // This branch handles the `sum!(iterator)` case
        $iter.fold(0, |a, b| a + *b)
    };
//   ^ use `;` to separate each branch
    ($start:expr, $iter:expr) => {  // This branch handles the `sum!(1234, iter)` case
        $iter.fold($start, |a, b| a + *b)
    };
}

fn main() {
    assert_eq!(10, sum!([1, 2, 3, 4].iter()));
    assert_eq!(23, sum!(6, [2, 5, 9, 1].iter()));
}